Jenkins Script Console

Jenkins features a nice Groovy script console which allows one to run arbitrary Groovy scripts within the Jenkins master runtime or in the runtime on agents.

It is very important to understand all of the following points because it affects the integrity of your Jenkins installation. The Jenkins Script Console:

  • Access is controlled by the RunScripts permission.  Older versions of the Matrix Authorization Strategy Plugin allow non-Admin users to be granted this permission.  Matrix Authorization Strategy Plugin version 1.5 and later fixed this issue. If any authorization strategy allows this permission to be granted to users other than Admins, then extreme care should be taken not to allow non-admins.
  • Is a web-based Groovy shell into the Jenkins runtime. Groovy is a very powerful language which offers the ability to do practically anything Java can do including:
    • Create sub-processes and execute arbitrary commands on the Jenkins master and agents.
    • It can even read files in which the Jenkins master has access to on the host (like /etc/passwd)
    • Decrypt credentials configured within Jenkins.
  • Offers no administrative controls to stop a User (or Admin) once they are able to execute the Script Console from affecting all parts of the Jenkins infrastructure. Granting a normal Jenkins user Script Console Access is essentially the same as giving them Administrator rights within Jenkins.
  • Can configure any Jenkins setting. It can disable security, reconfigure security, even open a backdoor on the host operating system completely outside of the Jenkins process. Due to the mission critical importance many organizations place on Jenkins in their infrastructure this point is especially important because it would allow an attacker to move laterally within infrastructure with little effort.
  • Is so powerful because it was originally intended as a debugging interface for Jenkins developers but has since grown into an interface used by Jenkins Admins to configure Jenkins and debug Jenkins runtime issues.

Because of the power offered by the Jenkins Script Console, Jenkins and its agents should never be run as the root user (on Linux) or system administrator on any other flavor of OS.   Videos linked in this wiki page demonstrate and discuss security warnings.

Be sure to secure your Jenkins instance using known good community practices.

Table of Contents

Multiple contexts

The Jenkins Script Console can run either on the master or any configured agents.

Running Script Console on the master

This feature can be accessed from "Manage Jenkins" > "Script Console".  Or visit the sub-URL /script on your Jenkins instance.

Running Script Console on agents

Visit "Manage Jenkins" > "Manage Nodes".  Select any node to view the status page.  In the menu on the left, a menu item is available to open a "Script Console" on that specific agent.

Run scripts from master Script Console on agents

It's also possible to run scripts from the master Script Console on individual agents.  The following script is an example running a script on agents from the master Script Console.

import hudson.util.RemotingDiagnostics
import jenkins.model.Jenkins

String agent_name = 'your agent name'
//groovy script you want executed on an agent
groovy_script = '''
println System.getenv("PATH")
println "uname -a".execute().text
'''.trim()

String result
Jenkins.instance.slaves.find { agent ->
    agent.name == agent_name
}.with { agent ->
    result = RemotingDiagnostics.executeGroovy(groovy_script, agent.channel)
}
println result

Remote access

A Jenkins Admin can execute groovy scripts remotely by sending an HTTP POST request to /script/ url or /scriptText/.

curl -d "script=<your_script_here>" https://jenkins/script
# or to get output as a plain text result (no HTML)
curl -d "script=<your_script_here>" https://jenkins/scriptText

Also, Jenkins CLI offers the possibility to execute groovy scripts remotely using groovy command or execute groovy interactivelly via groovysh. However, once again curl can be used to execute groovy scripts by making use of bash Command Substitution. In the following example somescript.groovy is a groovy script in the current working directory.

curl --data-urlencode "script=$(< ./somescript.groovy)" https://jenkins/scriptText

If security is configured in Jenkins, then curl can be provided options to authenticate using the curl --user option.

curl --user 'username:password' --data-urlencode "script=$(< ./somescript.groovy)" https://jenkins/scriptText

Here is the equivalent command using python, not curl.

    with open('somescript.groovy', 'r') as fd:
        data = fd.read()
    r = requests.post('https://jenkins/scriptText', auth=('username', 'password'), data={'script': data})

Remote access with CSRF protection enabled

There's an extra step which must be performed to configure Jenkins via the Script Console when CSRF Protection is enabled. The extra step is to get a CSRF token. The token provides an extra security measure in Jenkins to ensure the script console is not being configured from an unauthorized source. It basically comes down to a two step process.

  1. Authenticate and get a CSRF token for submitting script console scripts.
  2. Authenticate and use the CSRF token when submitting script console scripts.

Here's an example. Get a CSRF token.

mytoken=$(curl --user 'username:password' -s https://jenkins/crumbIssuer/api/json | python -c 'import sys,json;j=json.load(sys.stdin);print j["crumbRequestField"] + "=" + j["crumb"]')

More examples of getting a CSRF token can be found in the Remote access API wiki page.

Then use the mytoken environment variable to submit the token along with your authentication to the script console.

curl --user 'username:password' -d "$mytoken" --data-urlencode "script=$(<./somescript.groovy)" https://jenkins/scriptText

Additionally, you can curl the root of the Jenkins API to determine if CSRF protection is enabled.

curl --user 'username:password' -s https://jenkins/api/json 2> /dev/null | python -c 'import sys,json;exec "try:\n  j=json.load(sys.stdin)\n  print str(j[\"useCrumbs\"]).lower()\nexcept:\n  pass"'

The above command will return true or false. If CSRF protection is enabled then it will return true.

Shortcut key on script console to submit

You can submit a script without mouse. Jenkins has a shortcut key which enables to submit with keyboard.

Video Tutorials and additional learning materials

Here are some recorded videos on the Jenkins Script Console:

To expand your ability to write script console scripts the following references are recommended:

Example Groovy scripts

Due to the nature of Groovy scripts accessing Jenkins source code directly, Script Console scripts are easily out of date from the Jenkins source code. It is possible to run a script and get exceptions because public methods and interfaces in Jenkins core or Jenkins plugins have changed. Keep this in mind when trying out examples. Jenkins is easily started from a local development machine via the following command:

export JENKINS_HOME="./my_jenkins_home"
java -jar jenkins.war

Use CTRL+C to stop Jenkins. It is not recommended to try Script Console examples in a production Jenkins instance.

The following repositories offer solid examples of Groovy scripts for Jenkins.

Browse all Scriptler Plugin Groovy Scripts and please share your scripts with the Scriptler Plugin.

Plugins enabling Groovy usage