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  • Serialization of anonymous classes
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Overview

Jenkins core and plugin code make use of two kinds of serialization of Java objects: to XML files like config.xml or build.xml or global settings, via XStream; and using Java’s built-in serialization mechanism, for Remoting calls. In either case you may see a warning from  JENKINS-49795 - Getting issue details... STATUS  or  JENKINS-49994 - Getting issue details... STATUS such as:

Attempt to (de-)serialize anonymous class org.jenkinsci.plugins.stuff.YourClass$3 in file:/…/plugins/stuff/WEB-INF/lib/stuff.jar; see: https://jenkins.io/redirect/serialization-of-anonymous-classes/

(There are variants, less common, for attempts to serialize lambdas or local classes.) The warning will be logged by org.jenkinsci.remoting.util.AnonymousClassWarnings. If you see this warning, track down the location in source code:

javap -classpath /…/plugins/stuff/WEB-INF/lib/stuff.jar -l 'org.jenkinsci.plugins.stuff.YourClass$3'

will give you an overview of the class, and LineNumberTable entries will show you which lines in YourClass.java contain the class declaration.

Usages in Remoting

The main problem with sending anonymous classes over Remoting is that can all too easily “capture” unexpected and unwanted fields in the callable, which may cause serious issues including those described in Plugins affected by fix for JEP-200. Also you will get unusable listings from metrics collected as of  JENKINS-27035 - Getting issue details... STATUS .

To fix code like this:

int stuff(FilePath workspace, final String arg) throws IOException, InterruptedException {
    return workspace.act(new MasterToSlaveFileCallable<Integer>() {
        @Override
        Integer invoke(File f, VirtualChannel channel) throws IOException, InterruptedException {
            return countThings(f, arg);
        }
    });
}

just use a “convert anonymous to member” refactoring in your IDE, or manually:

private static final class ThingCounter extends MasterToSlaveFileCallable<Integer> {
    private final String arg;
    ThingCounter(String arg) {
        this.arg = arg;
    }
    @Override
    Integer invoke(File f, VirtualChannel channel) throws IOException, InterruptedException {
        return countThings(f, arg);
    }
}
int stuff(FilePath workspace, String arg) throws IOException, InterruptedException {
    return workspace.act(new ThingCounter(arg));
}

Usages in XStream

If you have accidentally used an anonymous inner class as a field in some object serialized via XStream, your XML files are going to be a mess. This is a worse problem than for Remoting since not only can you suffer from JEP-200-related security blocks, but the mistake has been persisted to disk so you need to take into account possible saved settings.

If the field was not really valuable, make it transient (so it will not be saved), and also rename it so Jenkins will not even try to load existing values from disk.

If you can afford to discard old settings, fix its type and rename it.

If you really need to load existing settings, you are going to have to do some work to retain compatibility. If YourClass$3 was saved to disk, originally from

class YourClass {
    // …dozens of unrelated lines…
    public SomeInterface thingThatGetsSaved(final String arg) {
        return new SomeInterface() {
            @Override
            public void someMethod() {
                use(arg);
            }
        };
    }
}

then you can refactor this way:

class YourClass {
    // right at the top of the file:
    /** @deprecated unused */
    private static final Object[] SOME_CLOSURES = {
        new Object() {}, // YourClass$1
        new Object() {}, // YourClass$2
    };
    /** @deprecated unused */
    private SomeInterface thingThatGetsSaved(final String arg) {
        return new SomeInterface() { // YourClass$3
            @Override
            public void someMethod() {
                use(arg);
            }
            private Object readResolve() {
                return new ThingThatGetsSaved(arg);
            }
        };
    }
    // …dozens of unrelated lines…
    public SomeInterface thingThatGetsSaved(String arg) {
        return new ThingThatGetsSaved(arg);
    }
    private static final class ThingThatGetsSaved implements SomeInterface {
        private final String arg;
        ThingThatGetsSaved(String arg) {
            this.arg = arg;
        }
        @Override
        public void someMethod() {
            use(arg);
        }
    }
}
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